The lab was founded in 1987 with a grant from the Starr Foundation, through the efforts of Marshall Wu, then Senior Curator of Asian Art. From the outset, the mission of the lab has been to serve as an integral part of the teaching and research functions of the Museum.
The Robert B. Jacobs Asian Art Conservation Laboratory is a distinctive and specialized resource that provides UMMA with the unique ability to care for its collections of nearly 400 Chinese and Japanese paintings and more than 7,000 prints and drawings in a laboratory space designed for public viewing. The lab also provides conservation services and mounting or remounting of East Asian paintings and Asian and Western works on paper for institutions and individuals worldwide.
Conservation on Display
Through a floor-to-ceiling glass wall, Museum visitors can see and learn about conservation work being conducted in a secure, environmentally controlled lab. UMMA is the only university art museum in North America to boast such a facility.
In addition to caring for UMMA's comprehensive collections of Asian art, lab services are available to collectors, art dealers, and other museums. After receiving and inspecting a work of art, the conservator discusses possible treamtments, including the potential benefits and challenges of each. The conservator respects the age and style of the original painting, print, or drawing, and suggests repairs that will extend the life of the work. the goal is not necessarily to make the work look new, but rather to protect its viability well into the future using only treatments that are reversible.
Each treatment requires the explicit written consent of the owner of the artwork. Laboratory charges are determined by the hours of labor required and for mountings, the cost of materials. When the treatment includes a new silk mounting, the conservator and client collaborate on choice of colors and patterns. When necessary, UMMA con obtain mounting silks from Japan or China. Depending on the condition of the artwork, the treatment process may require from six months to one year to prevent future warping or other damage. Each client consultation includes a discussion of the time required based on the type of treatment.
Clients must provide trasnportation and insurance during transit. An estimate of the value of the work is requred upon consignment to UMMA. Please note that neither UMMA conservators nor curators may appraise the market value an artwork.
Traditionally, East Asian paintings have been executed on silk or handmade, acid-free paper. These are both thin, pliant, and translucent materials that must be reinforced with one or more layers of a strong, long-fibered paper before being mounted in one of several traditional formats, as an album leaf, handscroll, hanging scroll, or screen painting. A paste from boiled wheat starch—diluted and often fermented to make it even weaker—bonds the layers of paper together. The paints used are mineral or vegetable pigments suspended in a mixture of water and a glue made from animal bones or skins.
Asian paintings are amazingly resilient, and can survive for many centuries, but they are also susceptible to damage from careless handling, changes in humidity, overexposure to light, or insects. In dry air, the paper and silk become brittle and crack, and the paint crumbles or flakes away; but if the air is overly moist, mold can attack the painting. Over-exposure to light darkens both silk and paper, and can break down the animal protein in silk fibers. For these reasons, East Asian paintings are not designed to be displayed permanently. In both China and Japan, paintings are brought out for enjoyment seasonally or on special occasions. At other times, paintings are kept safe, ideally in dark storerooms with thick, fireproof mud walls that that maintain a relatively stable environment throughout the year. Hanging scrolls and handscrolls are rolled up and stored in silk sleeves or wooden boxes, while screens are folded and wrapped in fabric.
In order to ensure that the Museum’s collection of East Asian paintings will survive for future generations, we follow a schedule that allows paintings to rest in storage for ten months for each month they are on view. Thus if a painting is displayed for three months in a thematic exhibition, it next becomes eligible for display after two and a half years have passed.
Prints, drawings, and watercolor paintings on paper, whether Western or Asian in origin, share several requirements for their care and conservation. Among the major threats to works on paper are careless handling, exposure to unstable materials, overexposure to light, and moisture.
Unmatted works of art on paper must be handled with special care. Use clean white gloves, as even the slightest amount of natural oils from one’s skin can leave a mark on the paper surface. When moving the art work, even very short distances, place it on a stiff acid-free board or in the fold of a large sheet of acid-free paper and carry it flat, to avoid accidental creasing or wrinkling.
Make certain that all materials touching the surface of the paper, on the back as well as the front, are acid-free. If your print, drawing, or photograph was framed prior to the 1980s, it may be glued or taped to ordinary cardboard: both the cardboard and the glue or tape are extremely harmful to paper. Never, ever, use newsprint to wrap a work of art on paper or silk: it is so acidic that it will disintegrate paper and silk fibers in a short time period. Seek professional assistance to have cardboard and tapes removed and replaced with archival materials. If you have any question about the materials used to frame your art works, consult a professional framer in your area.
As an organic material, paper is highly sensitive to light, which will in time cause it to become dark and brittle. The discoloration is irreversible, but some degree of flexibility can be restored to the paper through careful conservation treatment. To prevent damage from light to works on paper displayed in the home, hang art works where they are not exposed to bright natural or artificial light, ideally on a north-facing wall or in a hallway. If possible, rotate art works so that no single work is on display constantly. A convenient way to do this is to change the display with the seasons.
The other enemy of paper is moisture: water and mold can cause greenish-brown stains or warping, or cause ink or pigments to smear. In the home, works of art on paper should be stored in watertight containers (which are also effective against mice and insects, who find both paper and the paste used in Asian paintings delicious), and kept well away from damp floors or walls. Conservation treatment can reverse or diminish the effects of water damage.
The Robert B. Jacobs Asian Art Conservation Laboratory at UMMA accepts commissions from institutions and individuals for the conservation and mounting or remounting of East Asian paintings and art works on paper, with the exception of photographs.
After inspecting a work of art first-hand, the Conservator will discuss possible treatments with the client, clearly and candidly explaining the charges and the possible benefits and drawbacks of each. Our overarching policy is to respect the age and style of the original painting, print, or drawing, and to perform repairs that will extend the life of the work, not to make it look new. No treatment is undertaken without the explicit written approval of the owner of the artwork, and all treatments are reversible.
When treatment includes a new silk mounting, the Conservator works closely with the owner of the artwork to determine the choice of colors and patterns. If necessary, mounting silks may be special ordered from Japan or China.
Laboratory charges are determined by the hours of labor needed and, for mountings, by the cost of materials. Treatment commences when a deposit has been received for 50% of the total estimate. Clients should be aware that the treatment process may require six months to a year, as paintings on silk or works on paper must be stretched and dried very slowly to prevent warping in the future.
Potential clients are urged to contact the Conservation Lab directly by telephone or email to set up an appointment for the Conservator to inspect the artwork. For works of art too large to carry by hand, or for clients who are beyond driving distance, please email or write to the lab explaining your needs and enclose good quality jpegs or photographs of the work. This will allow the Conservator to provide a preliminary analysis of the work needed, which may need to be revised upon first-hand examination. Clients are responsible for the costs of transporting works to and from the laboratory, as well as insurance costs during transport. Clients must also provide an estimate of the value of the work upon consignment to the Museum. Neither the Conservator nor the Senior Curator of Asian Art may appraise the market value of an artwork.
Robert B. Jacobs Asian Art Conservation Laboratory
Attn: Katherine Prichard, Assistant Registrar
University of Michigan Museum of Art
525 South State Street
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1354